Senin, 11 Januari 2010


Navigation is the knowledge to know the field conditions to be faced, our position in the wild and determine the direction and purpose of the trip in the wild.
Knowledge of land navigation include
1. Readings map
2. Use a compass
3. The use of natural signs that help us in determining the direction of
Knowledge of land navigation is a very important provision for us to deal with the nature of the grassland, mountains to jungle. To that require such tools
1. Topographic map
2. Ruler
3. Compass
4. Connector
5. Protractor
6. Altimeter
7. Pencils
Map is a picture of the earth's surface is reduced by a certain scale as needed. Maps drawn on a flat area with a specific projection systems. Maps used for outdoor activities is Pete Topography.
Topographic map is a representation on the plane of the whole or part of the earth's surface visible from the dare reduced by certain proportions. Topographic map illustrates some of the physical projection of the earth, so with this map can be expected to form the earth's surface. Relief of the earth in the form of topographic maps is described in the form of contour lines.
In using topographic maps must be considered the completeness map, namely:
1. Map Title
Identity is depicted on the map, written in the name or other identity salient.
2. Description Making
Is information about making and institution-makers. Listed at the bottom left of the map.
3. Tax Map (Index Map)
Is a number that indicates the number map. Listed at the top right.
4. Map sheet division
Explanations are numbers another map drawn in around the map that is used, aims to facilitate the classification of the map if you need an interpretation of a wider area.
5. Coordinate System
Is the intersection of two lines of the coordinate axes. Kinds of coordinates are:
a. Geographic Coordinates
The axis used is the longitude (BB and BT), which intersect with lines of latitude (N and LS) or a reference to the coordinates using latitude and longitude. Coordinates using degrees, minutes and seconds. For example Co 120 ° 32 '12 "BT 5 ° 17' 14" LS.
b. Coordinate Grid
The intersection between the abscissa axis (x) with an ordinal (y) at grid coordinates. The position of a point expressed in the size range (meters), south to the north and west to east from the point of reference.
c. Local coordinates
To facilitate reading the coordinates on the map that no gridnya, can be made pharynx lines like a grid on the map.
Number scale of geographic coordinate system and grid is located on the edge of the map. Both coordinates are sistern applicable system internationally. But in reading the often confusing, so a simple reading of coordinates is made or not read entirely.
For example: read 72,100 mE 21, 9 ° 97 read 9700 mN, and others.

6. Map Scale
Is the ratio of distance on the map with the actual horizontal distance on the field or the field. Flat distance formula can be mapped in writing
Writing scale map is usually written by non-line number (graphic).
For example 1:25.000 scale, means 1 cm on the map equals 25 m in the actual field.

7. North Direction Orientation
On topographic maps the north there are three that must be considered before using a map and compass, because the three north is not located in one line.
Three further north are:
a. Actually North (True North / US / TN) was given the symbol * (star), which is north of the North Pole in the South of Earth.
b. North Map (Grid Nortb / UP / GN) GN given the symbol, which is parallel to the North line of vertical nets or Y axis Only on the map.
e. Magnetic North (Magnetic North / UM) was given the symbol T (child pariah half), the North is indicated by a compass needle. Magnetic North is always changing every year (to the West or the East) due to the influence of the earth's rotation. Only in the field.
Because of the three north is not located on one line, there will be deviations from the corner, among others:
a. Deviation angle between the U.S. - the Western UP to balk and to the East, called the deviation map (IP) or Merimion convergence. The benchmark is the fact the North (U.S.).
b. Deviation angle between the U.S. - UM balk to the west and the East, called the Magnetic deviation (IM) or Declination. Yanmg be the benchmark is actually North l ((IS).
c. Diversion angle between UP - UM balk to the west and the East, called the North deviation-map or a deviation of Magnetic North. The benchmark is the North Pela f71 ').
With angle diagram depicted


8. Contour lines or lines Altitude
Contour lines is the image of the earth's surface topography on the map.
The properties of contour lines, namely '.
a. Contour lines are closed curves parallel to that will not cut each other and will not be forked.
b. Contour lines in the always higher than outside.
c. Contour interval is always a multiple of the same
d. Index contour represented by thick lines.
e. Closer distance between contour lines, means the steep If jagged contour lines (like a comb), then the slope is close or equal to 90 °.
f. Saddle (saddle) located between the two contour lines of the same height but separated from each other. Saddle located between two big mountains called PASS.

9. Point Triangulation
Apart from the contour lines can also place a high note with the help of high points, which is called the point of triangulation Triangulation Point is a point or object that is a pillar or pillars of the high state a place of absolute sea level. Various kinds of triangulation points
a. Primary point, I '. 14, gol.l elevation point, no. 14, 3120 mdpl high. 3120
b. Secondary Point, S.45, gol.II elevation point, No.45, 2340 rndpl high. 2340
c. Tertiary points, 7: 15, No. gol.III elevation point. 15, 975 High mdpl 975
d. Quaternary point, Q.20, gol.IV elevation point, No.20, 875 mdpl high. 875
e. Between points, TP.23, elevation point Antara, No. 23, 670 mdpl high. 670
f. Kedaster point, K.131, Kedaster elevation point, No. 31, 1202 mdpl tg. 7202
g. Kedaster point Quaternary, KQ 1212, Quaternary Kedaster elevation point, no. 1212, 1993 mdpl high. 1993

10. Map legend
Is additional information to facilitate interpretation of maps, form elements created by man or by nature. Legend of the important map
to be understood include:
a. Point elevation
b. Path
c. Boundary lines
d. Highway
e. Settlements
f. Water
g. Tombs
h. And Others


A. READ contour lines
1. Mountain ridge
Mountain ridge is a series of contour lines of U-shaped, where the tip of the letter U indicates that the ternpat or shorter than the contours on top.
2. Valley or River
Valley or river is a series of contour lines of the form n (an inverted V) with a sharp tip.
3. Flat areas and steep sloping steeply
Regional flat / sloping lines rarely kontumya rare, while the steep / steep line konturnya meeting.

On the map scale 1: 50,000 listed konturnya interval 25 meters. To find the contour interval apply the formula 1 / 2000 x scale maps. But this formula does not apply to all maps, the maps MOUNTAIN MERAPI/1408-244/JICA TOKYO-1977 / 1:25.000, map legends contained in 10-meter intervals so konturnya apply the formula 1 / 2500 x scale maps. So for the determination of the contour interval there is no standard formula, but can be searched by:
1. Carl two different altitude points or nearby. Suppose points A and B.
2. Calculate the difference in height (between A and B).
3. Calculate the number of contour between A and B.
4. Divide the difference in height between A - B with the number of contour between A - B, the result is a contour interval.

Every time facing topographic map, first find the map north. See also Title Map (the title of the map is always located in the north, the top of the map). Or see the name of the mountain or village in the column map, north of the map is the top of the page.

In addition to identification contained in the map legend, for the purposes of
orientation should also be used forms a striking landscape in the field and easily recognized on the map, called the sign Medan. Several field marks that can be read on the map before departing to the field, namely:
1. The valley between two peaks
2. Steep valley
3. Crossing the street or village Edge
4. The intersection of the river with a path
5. Branching and the curve of the river, waterfalls, and others.
For a flat area can be used-.
1. Crossroads
2. Branching rivers, bridges, and others.

In planning the trip by using topographic maps, have
course starting and ending point will be plotted on the map. Sebelurn run record:
1. The coordinates of initial (A)
2. Coordinates of the destination point (B)
3. Corner of the map between A - B
4. Field marks what will be encountered along the path A - B
5. How long path between A - B and approximately how much time it takes to complete the path A-B.
That need to be considered in conducting an operation is
+ We must know the starting point of our departure, balk at the field or on the map.
+ Use a clear field balk at the field and on maps.
+ Use a compass to see where our journey, whether it is in accordance with the field marks that we use as a benchmark, or not.
+ Estimate how much distance path. Eg flat fields taken during the 5 krn 60 minutes and followed up the field for 10 minutes.
+ Do orientation and resection, if the situation allows.
+ Watch and always alert to any changes in field conditions and changes in direction of travel. Example of pnggungan sloping steeply to the ridge, moving ridge, across the river, the valley and others.
+ The length of actual trajectory can be prepared by, on the map made the track with road lines (vertical and horizontal scale) is adjusted to the scale of the map. The trajectory line drawing (on the map) shows the slope of the trajectory and shape are also sectional map. Path length is measured by multiplying the scale of the map, it will get really long path.

Plotting a drawing or make a point, make certain tandatanda line and on the map. Plotting useful to us in reading the map. For example Tim Bum is on the coordinate point A (3986: 6360) + 1400 m above sea level. SMC ordered Buni team that coordinates to the point T (4020: 6268) + 1301 mdpl. So the steps that must be done is:
a. Plotting coordinates on a map T by using the connector. Dimuali readings from the X-axis first, then the Y-axis, obtained (X: Y).
b. Plotting angle maps from A to T, by way of tank line from A to T, then the protractor / compass orientation angle A large measure - T from point A to the AT line. The reading corner with Azimuth Systems (0 "-360 °) in the direction of needle rotation Jain. Corner is useful to orient the direction from A to T.
c. Interpretation map to determine an efficient path from A to T. This interpretation may be a straight line or follow the winding path, river or ridge. Should really dipaharni contour lines form a line.
Plotting trajectories and estimate the time tempuh nya. Factors that affect the travel time:
+ Slope slope + Long paths
+ Situation and field conditions (eg dense forest, thorn bush or desert sand).
+ State average weather.
+ Left implementation (ie morning or evening hose).
+ Physical and mental condition and the equipment carried.

How to express the coordinates there are two ways, namely:
1. How to Coordinate Map
Determining the coordinates is done on the map and not the field. The appointment of these coordinates using
a. System Six Figures For example, the coordinates of point A (374; 622), point B (377; 461) b. Eight ways Figures For example, the coordinates of point A (3740; 6225), point B (3376; 4614)
2. How to Geographic Coordinates
(as 0). For geographic coordinates to note is the location map directions.

Corner of the map calculated from the map north towards the target line in a clockwise direction.
Angle reading system used Azimuth Systems (0 ° - 360 °).
Azimuth Systems is a system that uses horizontal angles, the amount calculated or measured in accordance with the way clockwise direction from a fixed line (north). Aims to determine the directions in the field or on the map and to check the direction of travel, because the line angle is the compass direction of the path that connects the starting and end the trip.
Angle calculation system is divided into two, based on the compass point
Back azimuth: If the compass angle> 180 ° then the point of the compass minus 180 °. If the point of the compass <1800>I. MAP READING TECHNIQUE
Principle. "Determining the position of the trip by reading maps and using the orientation and resection techniques, if at all possible" Starting Point: We must know that our departure point, balk at the map and in the field. Plot point on the map and note the coordinates.
Field marks: Use a clear sign of the field (a continuous ridge, river, cliffs, etc.) as a guide line or guide the direction of travel. Recognize the signs to interpret field maps.
Compass Direction: Use a compass to see where our journey. Does it fit with the direction of the ridge or a river that we susuri.
Estimate distance: In running, try to always estimate the distance and always take the direction of travel. We can see towards the back and saw jumalah time that we use. The distance is calculated by the scale of the map so that we get the approximate distance on the map. Keep in mind, that our estimate is uncertain.
+10' X 10 'for the map 1: 50,000
+ 20 'X 20' for the map 1: 100,000
To map the size 20 'X 20' is also called NQ BA, so that at 20 'on a line along the equator (40,068 km) is the longest parallel.
40,068 km: (360 °: 20 ') = 40,068 km: (360 °: 1 / 3) = 40,068 km: (360 ° x 3) 40,068 km: 1080 = 37.1 km
So 20 'on the line along the equator is 37.1 km. Distance of 37.1 km that is described in the map scale 1: 50,000 will have a distance: 37.1 km = 3,710,000 cm. Thus mapped: 3,710,000: 50.000 = 74.2 cm.
As a result I map NQ BA 20 'x 20' 1: 50,000 scale along the equator measuring 74.2 x 74.2 cm. This is not practical in its use.
3. Sheet Map
NQ BA impractical due to its use, because it is too wide. NQ BA then each divided into 4 sections with each measure 10 'X 10' or 37.1 x 37.1 cm. Each section is called a sheet or Sheet map, and given the letters A, B, C, D. If the map scale 1: 50,000, then the map has a size of 37.1 x 50,000 = 1,855,000 cm = 18.55 km .
4. Map Sheet numbering
a. Meridian (longitude) which through Jakarta is 106 ° 48 '27.79 "BT, used as the main meridians to penornoran topographic map in Indonesia. Jakarta as grs longitude 0
b. The length from west to east = 46 ° 20 ', but the area was mapped from the 12 "meridian west Jakarta. The area is not mapped are: 106 ° 48' 27.79" BT - (12 ° + 46 ° 20 'E ) = 8 '27.79 ", this area is a link that is not important for mapping land. penomorannya but still made
+ Region on plot A written sheet 1/IA and most points and most of Western North in Pulau Weh.
+ How to giving the number is from West to East dengn Arabic numerals (1,
2, 3,, 139). From North to South with Roman numerals (I, II,
+ NQ BA has selau Arabic and Roman numbers. Example: LP No. 47 [or SHEET No. XLI. 47/XLI.
+ Sheet map always formed letters, and letters were separated from the numbers by gar's LBDnya flat. Example: LP No. 47/XLI - B.
c. In the above mentioned that the line of longitude 0 ° Jakarta always share two NQ BA. So for the other map sheets dapta always count how many degrees or minutes of the location of the map sheet and 'longitude 0 ° Jakarta
Example: Map No. Lernbar. 39/XL - A line located between 7 "and 70 10 'S and 0 ° 40' and 0 ° 50 'East Jakarta. We must always mention the map sheet is located in the West or the East and the' Jakarta.
d. Sheet Map at scale 1: 50,000, NQ BA was divided into 4 parts. But for the map scale 1: 25.000, NQ BA-1 was divided into 16 sections and given the letters a through q by removing the letter j
e. Looking for Eastern and Southern boundaries or suatu.Sheet Map Sheet.
+ East of longitude limit 0 "Jakarta is 47 / 3 XI = 15" 40 'East Jakarta, or 15 ° 40' - 12 ° = 3 ° 40 'E Jakarta (Eastern most boundary Sheet B).
+ South Border and the Equator is 0 ° 47 / 3: 1 = 13 "40 'or 13 ° 40' 6" = 7 ° 40 'S. Because the sheet is located on Map B in 1 NQ BA, then minus 10 '. Thus obtained: 7 ° 40 '- 10' = 7 "30 'S
f. Looking for map sheet number or sheet. Quoting East Jakarta = 15 "40 ', being the South boundary is 7" 30' S. + Number of NQ BA to the East = 15 ° 40 '1 X 3 X 47 NQ BA BA = basal + Number NQ BA to the South 13' 40 'x 3 x 1 BA = basal NQ BA 41 (XLI)
g. Looking for a position / location example: an airplane fell on the coordinates .- 110 ° 28 'E and 7 ° 30' S. Find a number sheet map was trick is
+ 110 ° 28 '- 94 "40' = 15" 48 '
15 ° 48 'X 3 = 47t' 24 '(the most eastern boundary)
+ 60 + 7 "30 '= 13" 30'
130 30 'X 3 = 40 ° 30' (the most southern limit)
h. Calculation of Geographic Coordinates
Size of Sheet map I was 10 'X 10', an area of 18.55 km x 18.55 km in the map from 1 to 50,000. So that the can (10 X 60 to 18.5 5) - 20 = 1.617,
dibulatken be 1.62 (as constants). For example map used maps Sheet No. 47/XLI - B
Triangulation T. 932 is located at: 46 mm from the East and 16 mm from the South.
Position Sheet 47/XLI - B
1060 48 `27.79" + 30 40 '= 110 ° 28' 27.79 "
From the East: 46 mm X 1.62 = 1 'l4 ° 52'
1100 28 '27.79 "BT - 1' 14.52" = 110 ° 27 '13.27 "BT
(reduced due to a point closer to Jakarta).
From the south: 16 mm X 1.62 = 25.92 "
7 ° 30 'S - 25.92 "= 7f' 29 '34.08" S (reduced due to the closer equator).
Triangulation point T. Thus 932 is located at coordinates: 110 ° 27 '13.27 "BT and 7 ° 29' 34.08" S. 1915
To use the map 1: 25,000, counting the same way, only the constants changed to 0.81, which is obtained from:
((5 X 60): 18.55 1: 20 = 0.808, rounded to 0.81
Size from 1 Sheet map scale 1: 25,000 is 5 'X 5'
+ HOW 11
From the East: 46 mm = (46: 37.1) X 60 = 1 '14.39 "
110 ° 28 '27.79 "BT - 1' 14.39" = 11 of '27' 13.40 "BT
From the South: 16 mm = (16: 37.1) X 60 = 25.87 "
7 ° 30 'S - 25.87 "= 7t' 29 '34.13" S
Triangulation point T. Thus 932 is located at coordinates: I I0''27 '13.40 "BT and 7 ° 29' 34.13" S. 1915
In the calculated way I and II, there are differences Cara 0.13 "for BT and 0.05" for the LS. This is not a problem because it is still within tolerable limits and correction, which is less than 1.00 ".
To use maps 5 'X 5', 10 'X 10' and 20 'X 20' still using 37.1 divider. Conversely, if there is a report by gralicule coordinates, then how to determine its location on the map is (example) "One unit sru occupies a location with coordinates 110 ° 27 '13.27" BT and 7 ° 29' 34.08 "S, determine the location sru is on the map Sheet No.. 47/XLI - B "ANSWER: Position map 47/XLI-B: 110 ° 28 '27.79" BT so that 110 ° 27, 13.27 "BT 1 10" 27' 13.27 1 '14.52 "- 74.52"
74.52 ': 1.62 = 46 mm from the east, and measure with a ruler South Limit: 7 ° 30' thus gained 7030 'S -7029' 34.08 "= 25.92" 25.92 ": 1.62 = 16 mm from south with a ruler and measure the second point of intersection of these lines is the location of the sru is meant, ie 46 mm from the east side and 16 mm from the south side around Tnangulasi T.932


chitika ads